Expressive Acts Constructing Religious Identity among Indonesian Muslim Influencers on Instagram


  • Rio Nur Rachmad Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Zuliati Rohmah Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia



speech act, illocutionary act, expressive act, religious identity, influencer


The study investigated the expressive act constructing religious identity among Indonesian Muslim influencers on Instagram. Employing a qualitative descriptive method with non-participant observation, the data were obtained by documenting the caption of the posts from the selected influencers' Instagram accounts, taking notes, and selecting the relevant data. The data were analyzed using Searle's (1976) theory and the identity theory by Thornborrow (2004) to examine how the expressive act constructs religious identity. The results showed seven types of expressive speech acts performed by Indonesian Muslim influencers; Fadil Jaidi, Atta Halilintar, Ria Ricis, and Lesty Kejora. Those expressive speech acts are thanking, gratitude, praise, apology, appreciation, condolence, and congratulation. There are 53 data found, and most of the expressive acts uttered by the influencers are thanking others. Furthermore, the group identities are constructed by the representation of Indonesian Muslim influencers by which the language variations were identified from the code-switching they employed. There are also four common manners practiced by the Muslim influencers: 1) show mercy towards everyone, 2) have respect and love for the elder/ younger, 3) keep good relations with everyone, and 4) be kind to parents.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Rawafi, A. A. A., & Gunawan, W. (2019). The Illocutionary speech acts of Insha'Allah: Pragmatic analysis of teachers talks in daily school activities. Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Education Symposium (AES 2018), 522–528.

Alivin, M. Z. (2021). Identity negotiation in the age of global migration in Exophonic novels. NOBEL: Journal of Literature and Language Teaching, 168–187.

Annahlia, K., Edward, E., & Fauzi, M. (2020). Analysing Zakir Naik's illocutionary acts in his speech about Islam's view on terrorism and jihad. Elsya : Journal of English Language Studies, 2(3), 88–92.

Aulia, N. Q., Hidayat, D. N., & Alek, A. (2021). Illocutionary acts on Mata Najwa talk show on the theme "Mata Najwa menanti Terawan." Jurnalistrendi: Jurnal Linguistik, Sastra, dan Pendidikan, 6(1), 44–50.

Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do thing with words. Harvard University Press.

Aziz, J. A., Mahdi, S., & Amalia, R. M. (2017). Directive illocutionary acts by Mario Teguh in "Super Show" talk show: A pragmatics study. The 6th International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research (ICMR) in Conjunction with the International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (ICELTICs), 605–610.

Bogdan, B., & Biklen, S. K. (1992). Quality research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. University of California.

Clark, H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge University Press.

Fatmawati, F. (2015). Mikhael's personal identity construction in Paulo Coelho's The Zahir. NOBEL: Journal of Literature and Language Teaching, 6(2), 97–120.

Fitriani, F., Masrizal Mahmud, & Nasir, C. (2020). An analysis of illocutionary acts in Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald movie. Research in English and Education (READ), 5(3), 85–99.

Ghazanfari, M., Attaran, A., & Zabetipour, M. (2019). Contemporary sociopolitical functions of the "Allahu Akbar" ritual speech act in today's Muslim communities: A focus on the Iranian society. International Journal of Society, 7(2), 94–106.

Hidayah, R., & Milal, D. (2016). Ideal identity construction in beauty product advertisement of Garnier. NOBEL: Journal of Literature and Language Teaching, 7(2), 120–136.

Indriani, I., & Emmiyati, N. (2015). Illocutionary acts in "Midnight in Paris" movie. ELITE: English and Literature Journal, 2(1), 92–107.

Kaplan, R. . (2000). Why is English a global language? Problems and perplexities. In H. W. Kam & C. Ward (Eds.), Language in the Global Context (pp. 268–283). SEAMEO RELC.

Lawrence, C. B. (2012). The Korean English linguistic landscape. World Englishes, 31(1), 70–92.

Leech, G. (1983). Principles of Pragmatics. Longman Linguistics Library.

Levitt, H. M., Bamberg, M., Creswell, J. W., Frost, D. M., Josselson, R., & Suárez-Orozco, C. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report. American Psychologist, 73(1), 26–46.

Marcus, B. P. (2017). Religious identity formation. Religious Freedom Center of the Freedom Forum Institute.

Mauranen, A. (2003). The corpus of English as lingua franca in academic settings. TESOL Quarterly, 37(3), 513-527.

Milal, A. D., & Kusumajanti, W. (2020). Assertive speech acts performed by teacher in EFL classes. NOBEL: Journal of Literature and Language Teaching, 11(1), 83–100.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2016). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. SAGE Publications Inc.

Norrick, N. R. (1978). Expressive illocutionary acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 2(3), 277–291.

Norton, B., & Toohey, K. (2011). Identity, language learning, and social change. Language Teaching, 44(4), 412–446.

Nugroho, M., Tarjana, S. S., & Purnanto, D. (2018). The speech acts of suggestion by Islamic preachers (Da'i) in dialogic da'wah in the city of Surakarta. Proceedings of the Fourth Prasasti International Seminar on Linguistics (Prasasti 2018), 401–405.

Nuswantara, K., Rohmah, Z., & Kusumawardani, R. P. (2019). Corpus-based analysis of cohesive devices in academic essays written by Indonesian students: Across-gender analysis. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 27(4), 2265–2284.

Renaldo, Z. A. (2021). Emotions and illocutionary acts used by polytechnic students in describing online learning issue. ELT-Lectura, 8(1), 15–23.

Rohmah, Z. (2005). English as a global language: Its historical past and its future. Bahasa Dan Seni, 33(1), 106–117.

Ronan, P. (2015). Categorizing expressive speech acts in the pragmatically annotated SPICE Ireland corpus. ICAME Journal, 39(1), 25–45.

Searle, J. R. (1979). Expression and meaning. Cambridge University Press.

Silitonga, A. J. (2018). An analysis of illocutionary acts as found in Jane Austen's Manfield Park. Jurnal LITTERA, 1(2), 28–46.

Silva, A. M. da. (2017). Exploring the language choice of the non-commercial signs in Jakarta. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 467-475.

Suhandoko, S., Lyatin, U., & Ningrum, D. R. (2021). Impoliteness and gender differences in the Edge of Seventeen movie. NOBEL: Journal of Literature and Language Teaching, 12(2), 228–242.

Sukinah, S., & Effendi, A. (2021). Teacher’s illocutionary acts in online learning interactions. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran, 54(1), 28–37.

Tambunan, S. D. (2020). The illocutionary acts and the translation techniques in Sherlock Holmes movie series. Journal of Language and Literature, 8(2), 182–195.

Thornborrow, J. (2004). Language and identity. In L. Thomas & S. Wareing (Eds.), Language, society and power: An introduction (pp. 135–150). Routledge.

Wahyudiantari, N. W. P., Budiarsa, M., Yadnya, I. B. P., & Satyawati, M. S. (2020). illocutionary acts of the characters in wonder: A novel by R.J. Palacio. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 6(3), 36–40.

Wardoyo, C., Marlina, L., Darmalakasana, W., Suntana, I., & Kahmad, D. (2018). Theolinguistic study of directive speech acts performed by Islamic preacher in Friday sermon in Bandung Indonesia. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sociology Education (ICSE), 178–183.

Weatherall, A. (2002). Gender, language and discourse. Routledge.

Yoniartini, D. M. (2021). Lanskap linguistik kawasan pusat pendidikan di kota Mataram. Jurnal Ilmiah Telaah, 6(2), 162–168.

Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford University Press.

Yusuf, K., Mukhrozah, P. A., Jannah, R., Jauharoh, T., & Putra, F. A. (2022). Language patterns in the linguistic landscape of pesantren. Jurnal Al-Lughah, 11(1), 28–44.




How to Cite

Rachmad, R. N., & Rohmah, Z. (2022). Expressive Acts Constructing Religious Identity among Indonesian Muslim Influencers on Instagram. NOBEL: Journal of Literature and Language Teaching, 13(2), 175–192.




Most read articles by the same author(s)